Spring Boot JdbcTemplate Tutorial

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Introducing Spring Boot JDBC Support

Spring’s JdbcTemplate provides high-level abstraction on top of DataSource to perform database operations. In addition to that Spring’s declarative Transaction Management capabilities helps to manage database transactions in a simplified way without having to write boilerplate code.

Spring Boot simplifies the configuration of DataSource, TransactionManager, etc. by using it’s AutoConfiguration mechanism.

How SpringBoot AutoConfiguration magic works?

If you want to learn more about Spring Boot AutoConfiguration, see How SpringBoot AutoConfiguration magic works?.

Let’s see how we can perform CRUD operations using JdbcTemplate with PostgreSQL database.

First, go to https://start.spring.io/ and create a Spring Boot application by selecting JDBC API, PostgreSQL Driver and Testcontainers starters.

Imagine we are a building a simple application to manage bookmarks. So, we are going to create bookmarks table with id, title, url and created_at columns.

Initializing the Database

Spring Boot provides a convenient mechanism to initialize a database. We can create schema.sql and data.sql files under src/main/resources which will be automatically executed upon starting the application. However, this automatic script execution is enabled by default only when using in-memory databases like HSQL, H2, etc. but disabled otherwise.

We can enable the script initialization by adding the following property in src/main/resources/application.properties file.


Now, let’s create src/main/resources/schema.sql file as follows:

create table if not exists bookmarks
    id         bigserial not null,
    title      varchar   not null,
    url        varchar   not null,
    created_at timestamp,
    primary key (id)

To insert some sample data, create src/main/resources/data.sql file as follows:

truncate table bookmarks;

insert into bookmarks(title, url, created_at) values
('How (not) to ask for Technical Help?','https://sivalabs.in/how-to-not-to-ask-for-technical-help', CURRENT_TIMESTAMP),
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Use a DB Migration Tool

Though Spring Boot provides easy way to initialize database using schema.sql and data.sql, prefer using a proper database migration tools like Liquibase or Flyway.

Implementing CRUD operations using JdbcTemplate

Let’s start with creating a class representing a Bookmark.

import java.time.Instant;

public record Bookmark(
        Long id,
        String title,
        String url,
        Instant createdAt) {}

We have used Java records to model our Bookmark domain object.

Now, let’s create BookmarkRepository class injecting JdbcTemplate as follows:

public class BookmarkRepository {
    private final JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplate;

    public BookmarkRepository(JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplate) {
        this.jdbcTemplate = jdbcTemplate;

Let’s start with implementing findAll() method to fetch all the records from the bookmarks table.

Implementing findAll() method

When we query the database, it will return a ResultSet. We can provide a RowMapper implementation to map the ResultSet data into our Bookmark domain object as follows:

public class BookmarkRepository {
    private final JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplate;

    public BookmarkRepository(JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplate) {
        this.jdbcTemplate = jdbcTemplate;

    public List<Bookmark> findAll() {
        String sql = "select id, title, url, created_at from bookmarks";
        return jdbcTemplate.query(sql, INSTANCE);

    static class BookmarkRowMapper implements RowMapper<Bookmark> {
        public static final BookmarkRowMapper INSTANCE = new BookmarkRowMapper();
        private BookmarkRowMapper(){}
        public Bookmark mapRow(ResultSet rs, int rowNum) throws SQLException {
            return new Bookmark(

We have created BookmarkRowMapper implementing RowMapper interface as a Singleton. Then we have implemented findAll() method to fetch all rows from bookmarks table and mapped them into Bookmark objects using BookmarkRowMapper.


Fetching all rows from a table might lead to OutOfMemoryException if there are huge number of records. Always prefer to use pagination to fetch only a subset of records and process them.

Implement findById() method

Let’s implement findById(Long id) method to fetch a bookmark by id as follows:

public Optional<Bookmark> findById(Long id) {
    String sql = "select id, title, url, created_at from bookmarks where id = ?";
    try {
        Bookmark bookmark = jdbcTemplate.queryForObject(sql, INSTANCE, id);
        return Optional.of(bookmark);
    } catch (EmptyResultDataAccessException e) {
        return Optional.empty();

The findById() method is returning Optional<Bookmark> because a bookmark with given id may or may not exist. We are using jdbcTemplate.queryForObject(…) method which throws EmptyResultDataAccessException if no records found. So, we are handling the exception and returning Optional.empty().

Implement create() method

In create() method, we are going to insert a record into bookmarks table and return the auto_generated primary key value.

public Long create(Bookmark bookmark) {
    KeyHolder keyHolder = new GeneratedKeyHolder();

    jdbcTemplate.update(connection -> {
        String sql = "insert into bookmarks(title, url, created_at) values(?,?,?)";
        PreparedStatement ps = connection.prepareStatement(sql, new String[] { "id" });
        ps.setString(1, bookmark.title());
        ps.setString(2, bookmark.url());
        ps.setTimestamp(3, Timestamp.from(bookmark.createdAt()));
        return ps;
    }, keyHolder);

    return (long) keyHolder.getKey();

Note that, in newer versions of PostgreSQL we are specifying the auto_generated keys using connection.prepareStatement(sql, new String[] { “id” }). In previous versions, we can specify the same using connection.prepareStatement(sql, Statement.RETURN_GENERATED_KEYS).

Implement update() method

Let’s implement update() method in such a way that if a bookmark exists by the given id then we need to update title and url columns. Otherwise, throw an Exception.

public void update(Bookmark bookmark) {
    String sql = "update bookmarks set title = ?, url = ? where id = ?";
    int count = jdbcTemplate.update(sql, bookmark.title(), bookmark.url(), bookmark.id());
    if (count == 0) {
        throw new RuntimeException("Bookmark not found");

The jdbcTemplate.update(…) method return the number of rows affected by the executed query. If the count is 0 means there is no bookmark exists with the given id and hence we are throwing an Exception.

Implement delete() method

Let’s implement delete() method in such a way that if a bookmark exists by the given id then delete that row, otherwise throw an Exception.

public void delete(Long id) {
    String sql = "delete from bookmarks where id = ?";
    int count = jdbcTemplate.update(sql, id);
    if (count == 0) {
        throw new RuntimeException("Bookmark not found");

Testing Repository using Testcontainers

We should test our repositories interacting with PostgreSQL database using same type of database. Testcontainers can help us to test our application with real dependencies instead of using mocks or in-memory variations such as H2.

Let’s write BookmarkRepositoryTest using Testcontainers as follows:

package com.sivalabs.bookmarks.domain;

import static org.assertj.core.api.Assertions.assertThat;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.BeforeEach;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.TestMethodOrder;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.jdbc.JdbcTest;
import org.springframework.jdbc.core.JdbcTemplate;

import java.time.Instant;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Optional;

@JdbcTest(properties = {
class BookmarkRepositoryTest {

    JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplate;

    BookmarkRepository bookmarkRepository;

    void setUp() {
        bookmarkRepository = new BookmarkRepository(jdbcTemplate);

    void shouldFindAllBookmarks() {
        List<Bookmark> bookmarks = bookmarkRepository.findAll();

    void shouldCreateBookmark() {
        Bookmark bookmark = new Bookmark(null, "My Title", "https://sivalabs.in", Instant.now());
        Long id = bookmarkRepository.save(bookmark);

    void shouldGetBookmarkById() {
        Bookmark bookmark = new Bookmark(null, "My Title", "https://sivalabs.in", Instant.now());
        Long id = bookmarkRepository.save(bookmark);

        Optional<Bookmark> bookmarkOptional = bookmarkRepository.findById(id);

    void shouldEmptyWhenBookmarkNotFound() {
        Optional<Bookmark> bookmarkOptional = bookmarkRepository.findById(9999L);

    void shouldUpdateBookmark() {
        Bookmark bookmark = new Bookmark(null, "My Title", "https://sivalabs.in", Instant.now());
        Long id = bookmarkRepository.save(bookmark);

        Bookmark updatedBookmark = new Bookmark(id, "My Updated Title", "https://www.sivalabs.in", bookmark.createdAt());

        updatedBookmark = bookmarkRepository.findById(id).orElseThrow();
        assertThat(updatedBookmark.title()).isEqualTo("My Updated Title");
    void shouldDeleteBookmark() {
        Bookmark bookmark = new Bookmark(null, "My Title", "https://sivalabs.in", Instant.now());
        Long id = bookmarkRepository.save(bookmark);


We are using Spring Boot Test Slice annotation @JdbcTest to test only Repository instead of loading the entire application. Then we are using Testcontainers special JDBC URL support to spin up a PostgreSQL database using postgres:15.2-alpine image. Then we have written various tests to test our CRUD operations.

Spring Boot Tutorials

You can find more Spring Boot tutorials on Spring Boot Tutorials page.


Spring’s JdbcTemplate provides high-level abstraction to perform database operations without having to write boilerplate code. We have learned how to implement CRUD operations using JdbcTemplate and also written tests using Testcontainers.

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