SpringBoot Best Practices

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I have been working with SpringBoot for many years and over the time I worked with many SpringBoot based codebases. There are few common mistakes that I observe in the projects that use SpringBoot. So, I thought of writing down few good practices that can be followed while using SpringBoot.

1. Understand SpringBoot Core Concepts

I know, this sounds very obvious but I see many developers jumping onto using SpringBoot without having any prior knowledge on Spring, Dependency Injection. So they just keep adding annotations and @Bean definitions here and there until it works.

SpringBoot is an opinionated framework with powerful auto-configuration mechanism based on convention-over-configuration philosophy. So, it is very important to understand the following things:

2. Leverage SpringBoot’s built-in customization features

SpringBoot auto-configures many beans based on various criteria like existence of class in classpath, absence of a property and also provides the ability to customize the configuration using properties.

I see sometimes people configuring the entire bean definition using @Bean just to customize one property of it where as they can simply customize it using a property in application.properties file.

For example, if you want to customize the DataSource bean default values you can use spring.datasource.* properties instead of configuring the DataSource bean by yourself.

You can see all the supported customization properties here https://docs.spring.io/spring-boot/docs/current/reference/htmlsingle/#common-application-properties

3. Don’t add unnecessary starters and turn off unnecessary features

One of the primary reason for the popularity of SpringBoot is its getting started experience. You can simply goto https://start.spring.io/ and select the starters you want to add and run the application. SpringBoot creates lot of beans behind the scenes based on the starters we add and hence it may increase the memory footprint and also increase the startup time. So, just add the starters you absolutely need.

SpringBoot automatically registers beans using AutoConfiguration. Sometimes we may not need all those features and we can turn them off.

For example, if we are not planning to use JMX feature we can turn it off using spring.jmx.enabled=false.

4. Prefer constructor based dependency injection

We can autowire the dependencies using constructor-injection or setter-injection or @Autowired on property itself. Personally I think Constructor injection is the better option. So, I try to always define the dependencies as final variables so that it will force to initialize in constructor.

public class CustomerService {
    private final CustomerRepository customerRepository;

    public CustomerService(CustomerRepository customerRepository) {
        Assert.notNull(customerRepository, "customerRepository mustn't be null");
        this.customerRepository = customerRepository;

This way it will be easier to instantiate CustomerService with necessary dependencies for testing if required.

5. Use TestContainers to test with real dependencies

One common pattern that I observed in SpringBoot applications is using in-memory databases like H2 for testing and using other RDBMS like Postgres, Oracle etc for production. I think it is not a good practice for several reasons.

First, the production database behavior might be different than in-memory database and hence some bugs might not be detected during testing. Second, some features (ex: JSONB) might not be supported by in-memory databases where as production database supports.

These days most of the applications use Docker in some way or the other. So, we can use TestContainers which is a docker based library for testing with a real database similar to production database.

You can refer the following to learn how to use TestContainers for Integration Testing with SpringBoot:

6. Use Test Slice annotations to speed up tests

We write Unit tests to test the behavior of single class and Integration tests to test the behavior of a logical group of components. So, generally we don’t need the Spring magic for unit tests. We should be able to create an instance of the class (probably with mock dependencies) and test the behavior.

However, while unit testing Spring based components like Controllers or Spring Data Repositories we need Spring ApplicationContext to be created. SpringBoot provides @SpringBootTest to load ApplicationContext and we can test the components. But the @SpringBootTest annotation loads all components in the application which might take more time.

For Unit tests we generally want to load only the component we want to test with mock dependencies without loading any other unnecessary dependencies.

SpringBoot provides various other test annotations like @WebMvcTest, @DataJpaTest etc to only load a slice of the ApplicationContext components. So, it is better to unit test the Spring components by using slice specific annotations rather than @SpringBootTest.

You can learn more about using SpringBoot Testing annotations with following articles:

7. Use database migration tools

While using a relational database with SpringBoot and JPA it is easier to get started with auto generation of database schema from entity definitions. However, for complex applications it is better to use Database Migration tools like Flyway or Liquibase. These tools will help in maintaining versioned database migration scripts and keep track of the current state of the database and determine what migration scripts need to be run.

8. Prefer Off the Shelf security solutions instead of rolling your own

Spring Security make it easy to implement security, but still implementing security properly with OAUTH, SAML etc integrations is still very complex. Security is a very complex subject and needs lot of expertise to properly implement it. If at all possible to use off the shelf security solutions like Okta then use them instead of rolling your own security implementation.

9. Use dedicated configuration classes

In our project we may need to create several Spring Configuration classes to define or customize the beans. For example we want to configure Swagger, Jackson, AWS, ElasticSearch, Redis etc. Instead of configuring all of them in one configuration class it would be better to have a separate dedicated Configuration classes for each one of them.

10. Avoid boilerplate code with custom SpringBoot starter

In some organizations there will be some home-grown libraries to achieve some common functionality like security, secrets management, caching etc. We can create custom SpringBoot starter to auto-configure the library features so that we don’t need to repeat the boilerplate code for every application.

You can refer my post Creating Custom SpringBoot Starter for Twitter4j on how to create a custom SpringBoot starter.

For more info on creating our own SpringBoot starter see https://docs.spring.io/spring-boot/docs/current/reference/htmlsingle/#boot-features-custom-starter

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